Deltiology (from Greek δελτίον, deltion, diminuitive of δέλτος, deltos, "tablet, letter"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study and collection of postcards. Compared to philately, the iden- tification of a postcard's place and time of production can often be an impossible task because postcards, unlike stamps, are produced in a decentralised, unregulated manner. For this reason, some collectors choose to limit their acquisitions to cards by specific artists and publishers, or by time and location.
Glossary of Postcard Terminology - click here * * * Postcard History - click here

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110 - Hungary

Győr [Győr (Hungarian), Raab (German), Ráb (older Czech, older Slovak), Dyor - Дьёр (Russian)] is the most important city of northwest Hungary, the capital of Győr-Moson-Sopron county and lies on one of the important roads of Central Europe, halfway between Budapest and Vienna. The city is the sixth largest in Hungary and one of the seven main regional centres of the country.

109 - Hungary

It was founded as the first Hungarian Benedictine monastery in 996 by Prince Géza, who designated this as a place for the monks to settle, and then it soon became the centre of the Benedictine order. The monastery was built in honour of Saint Martin of Tours. Géza's son, King Stephen I donated estates and privilege to the monastery. Astrik (Anastasius) served as its first abbot.
The oldest surviving document to use Hungarian language, the Charter of the Tihany Benedictine Abbey, dating back to 1055, is still preserved in the library. The first buildings of the community were destroyed, then rebuilt in 1137. The Basilica's pillars and the early Gothic vault were built in the early XIII century, using the walls of the former church. In 1486 it was reconstructed under King Matthias in Gothic style.
The monastery became an archabbey in 1541 and as a result of Ottoman incursions into Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries, it was turned into a fortification. During one and a half centuries of the Turkish Occupation, the monks, however, had to abandon the abbey for shorter or longer periods of time. Only later were they able to start the reconstruction of the damaged buildings. During the time of Archabbot Benedek Sajghó, a major baroque construction was in progress in the monastery.
In the 17th and 18th centuries, rich Baroque adornments and extensions were added to the complex and much of its current facade dates from this time. It received its present form in 1832, with the library and the tower, which was built in classicistic style. The 18th century, the era of the Enlightenment also influenced the life of the monasteries. The state and the monarchs judged the operation of the communities according to immediate utility, by and large tolerating only those orders which practised nursing and education. In the 1860s, Ferenc Storno organised major renovations, mostly in the basilica.
After 1945 the properties of the Order and the schools run by the Benedictines were confiscated by the communist state from 1950 until the end of communism in Hungary. In 1995, one year before the millennium, the complex was entirely reconstructed and renovated. In 1996, "the Millenary Benedictine Abbey of Pannonhalma and its Natural Environment" was elected among the World Heritage sites.
Pannonhalma was visited, among others, by Alexius II, Patriarch of Moscow in 1994, Pope John Paul II in 1996 and Patriarch Bartholomew I of Constantinople and the Dalai Lama in 2000. In 2005, a film was made about the archabbot, Asztrik Várszegi, titled A közvetítő ("The mediator").

108 - Hungary

The library was finished in the first third of the 19th century. The longitudinal part of the building was planned and built by Ferenc Engel in the 1820´s. Later János Packh was commissioned with extending the edifice, and the oval hall is his work. Joseph Klieber, a Vienna master was asked to ornament the interior of the building.
On the four sides of the oval hall's ceiling the allegories of the four medieval university faculties can be seen: Law, Theology, Medicine and the Arts. The holdings of the library have been increasing ever since. Manuscripts from the time of Saint László have been catalogued in Pannonhalma. As of today, 400.000 volumes are kept in the collection.

107 - Hungary

Pannonhalma's most notable landmark, the Benedictine Pannonhalma Archabbey, one of the oldest historical monuments in Hungary, can be found next to the town, on top of a hill (282 m). Saint Martin of Tours is believed to have been born at the foot of this hill, hence its former name, Mount of Saint Martin (Márton-hegy in Hungarian), from which the monastery occasionally took the alternative name of Márton-hegyi Apátság. This is the second largest territorial (ie., approx. sovereign) abbey in the world, after the one in Monte Cassino.

106 - Hungary

Pannonhalma is a small town in western Hungary, in Győr-Moson-Sopron county with approx. 4.000 inhabitants. It is about 20 km from Győr; it is accessible by car, bus or train.
The town, known as Győrszentmárton until 1965, is dominated by its most famous landmarks: the thousand-year-old Pannonhalma Archabbey and the Benedictine Secondary School, which are situated above the village, on Szent Marton Hill. The hill itself is still known by this ancient name and the name "Pannonhalma" was introduced as part of the Hungarian language reforms in the nineteenth century. The association with Saint Martin ("Szent Márton" in Hungarian) derives from a belief that Martin of Tours was born here, though others believe he was born in nearby Szombathely.
There is a small statue in the town at the crossroads under the abbey which shows the saint as a Roman soldier, cutting his cloak according to the legend associated with him. The wall behind this is part of the original fortifications which were built in 1569 as a result of incursions into Western Hungary by the Ottoman Turks. The area remained a moving frontier between the Islamic Ottoman empire and the Christian west for the following 140 years and the town suffered considerable damage during this time.
From at least the nineteenth century, Szent Marton had a significant Jewish community. They played an important role in the commerce of village, as it was then, until the latter years of World War II. In 1944 the remaining Jewish families were rounded up and sent to extermination camps. A small synagogue, built in the late 1800´s, remains on the main street, though it is no longer in use. The building is in the process of being restored and a monument has been constructed on the street in front of it. Some dozens of Jews were protected in the abbey when it was taken under control of the International Red Cross in October 1944, along with 3.000 other refugees, many of them children, thanks to the efforts of a Swiss national, Eduard Benedek Brunschweiler. The IRC was expelled from Pannonhalma by the Red Army in April 1945.
In 1996 parts of the town were included in UNESCO's demarcation of the Abbey as a World Heritage Site. Four years later, the village of Pannonhalma was officially granted "town" status.

105 - Hungary

Winemaking started in the Pannonhalma-Sokoróalja region when Benedictine monks founded the monastery of Pannonhalma in 996. Social and political turmoil following World War II made it impossible to continue the centuries-old traditions, since both the properties and the winery were taken over by the Communist state. In the ensuing decades, monks living in Pannonhalma did not give up hope of resuscitating their wine-making traditions. Since the fall of Communism, the monks have revived the viticultural traditions and the wineries. In 2000, the abbey repurchased vineyards that had been confiscated by the Communists and began replanting grape vines in the same year. The winery is situated on a 2000 m² plot with a capacity of 3000 hls. The main grape varieties are Rhine Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, Gewürztraminer, Welchriesling, Ezerjó and Sárfehér. In addition, they have planted the more international Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Noir, Merlot and Cabernet Franc. They currently have 37 hectares under newly planted vines and the first harvest took place in autumn 2003.

104 - Hungary

The name Esztergom was first mentioned in 1079. Some think the name comes from Isztergam (Iszter meaning Danube and Gam referring to the nearby river Garam). The town is the seat of Etzel/Attila in the Niebelungenlied as Gran. In Croatian Ostrogon, in Polish Ostrzyhom, in Slovak Ostrihom, in Latin Strigonium, in Turkish Estergon.